Bundenbach Fossil
Crinoids - Archive

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Crinoidea

Codiacrinus schultzei_Bundenbach
Codiacrinus schultzei_Bundenbach_zoom

Codiacrinus schultzei
18x20 cm (Matrix), 15 cm (fossil)
found and prepared by W. Südkamp
Bundenbach, Grube Obereschenbach

Hapalocrinus elegans_Bundenbach
Hapalocrinus elegans_Bundenbach_zoom

Hapalocrinus elegans
9.5 cm (Fossil)_20x15 cm (Matrix) 
Bundenbach, Grube Obereschenbach

Taxocrinus stuertzi_Bundenbach
Taxocrinus stuertzi_Bundenbach_zoom

Taxocrinus n.sp. (rootsystem)
21 cm (Fossil)_24x20 cm (Matrix)
Bundenbach, Grube Obereschenbach

Taxocrinus stuertzi_Bundenbach_zoom
Taxocrinus stuertzi_Bundenbach

Taxocrinus stuertzii
11 cm (Fossil)_13x14 cm (Matrix)
Bundenbach, Grube Obereschenbach

Hapalocrinus elegans_Bundenbach
Hapalocrinus elegans_Bundenbach_zoom

Hapalocrinus elegans
17 cm (Fossil)_26x22 cm (Matrix)
Bundenbach, Grube Obereschenbach

Parisangulocrinus zeaeformis_Bundenbach_Detail
Parisangulocrinus zeaeformis_Bundenbach

Parisangulocrinus zeaeformis colony
20 cm (Fossil)_24x21.5 cm (Matrix)
Bundenbach, Grube Obereschenbach

Parisangulocrinus zeaeformis, Eospondylus primigenius_Bundenbach
Parisangulocrinus zeaeformis, Eospondylus primigenius_Bundenbach_zoom

Parisangulocrinus zeaeformis, Eospondylus primigenius
15.5x13cm

Hapalocrinus frechi_Bundenbach
Hapalocrinus frechi_Bundenbach_zoom

Hapalocrinus frechi
(11 cm), Matrix 25.5x19 cm

Parisangulocrinus furcaxialis_Bundenbach
Parisangulocrinus furcaxialis_Bundenbach

Parisangulocrinus furcaxialis
6.5x8.5cm

Rhenocrinus ramosus_Bundenbach
Rhenocrinus ramosus_Bundenbach_zoom

Rhenocrinus ramosus
23x19 cm, Grube Herrenberg

Gastrocrinus giganteus_Bundenbach
Gastrocrinus giganteus_Bundenbach_zoom

n.sp., Gastrocrinus giganteus
35x16 cm

Rhenocrinus ramosus_Bundenbach
Rhenocrinus ramosus_Bundenbach_zoom

Rhenocrinus ramosus
16x11 cm, Grube Herrenberg

Bactrocrinites jaekeli_Bundenbach
Bactrocrinites jaekeli_Bundenbach_zoom

Bactrocrinites jaekeli
16.5x10cm

Thallocrinus procerus_Bundenbach
Thallocrinus procerus_Bundenbach_zoom

Thallocrinus procerus
29x12 cm

Bactrocrinites, Hapalocrinus, Imitatocrinus_Bundenbach
Bactrocrinites, Hapalocrinus, Imitatocrinus_Bundenbach_zoom

Bactrocrinites, Hapalocrinus, Imitatocrinus
14.5x14 cm

Hapalocrinus frechi , Gastrocrinus giganteus_Bundenbach
Hapalocrinus frechi , Gastrocrinus giganteus_Bundenbach_zoom

Hapalocrinus frechi , Gastrocrinus giganteus
34x34 cm

Follicrinus grabei_Bundenbach
Follicrinus grabei_Bundenbach_

Follicrinus grabei
22 x20 cm

Parisangulocrinus zaeformis_Bundenbach
Parisangulocrinus zaeformis_Bundenbach_zoom

Parisangulocrinus zaeformis
17x11 cm

Codiacrinus schultzei_Bundenbach
Codiacrinus schultzei_Bundenbach_zoom

Codiacrinus schultzei
23x21.5 cm

Codiacrinus_schultzei_Bundenbach
Codiacrinus_schultzei_Bundenbach_zoom

Codiacrinus schultzei
23x13.5 cm


Homolazoa

Rhenocystis latipedunculata_Bundenbach
Rhenocystis latipedunculata_Bundenbach_zoom

Rhenocystis latipedunculata
13x10 cm

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About Fossil Crinoids

Crinoids are sometimes referred to as Sea Lillies because of their resemblance to a plant or flower. In parts of England, the columnals forming the stem are called fairy money, and star-shaped examples of these were associated with the sun by ancient peoples, and given religious significance. Robert Plot (1640—1696) named these stellate forms star stones.

Crinoids are marine animals belonging to the Phylum Echinodermata and the Class Crinoidea. An array of branching arms (brachia) is arranged around the top of a globe-shaped, cup-like structure (calyx) containing the main body of the animal. In many fossil forms the calyx was attached to a flexible stem that was anchored to the sea bed.

The skeleton is made of the mineral calcite, and consists of hundreds of individual plates of different shapes and sizes. Decay of the soft tissue that held many of these plates together means that complete specimens are rare, but parts of the stem are common fossils.

The first true Crinoids appeared during the Lower Ordovician. Following the global mass extinction at the Silurian boundary, they and underwent several major radiations at the early Devonian, Missisippian (peak) and Pennsylvanian. They almost became extinct at the end of Paleozoic Era in the Permian, but recovered to flourish again during the Mesozoic, in the Triassic and Jurassic (Lias, Dogger, Malm). Decreasing numbers in the Cretaceous, fossil record of crinoids rare in the Tertiary. More than 6,000 fossil species, belonging to more than 800 genera, have been described.  

Crinoids can very basically be described as upside-down starfish with a stems. The stem of a crinoid extends down from what would be the top of a starfish, leaving the mouth of the organism opening skyward, with the arms splayed out. However, crinoid arms look articulated and feathery. The stalk extends down from the aboral surface of the calyx. The stalk column has holdfasts which attach the animal to substrate. 

Today, approximately 600 living species are known; most free-living feather stars or comatulids living in the shallow seas. About 80 species of stalked sea lilies are restricted to the deeper water of today```s ocean. 

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